Thursday, August 04, 2005


[ Please distribute this declaration widely: send it to friends
and colleagues, send it to your local media (press, TV), post
it on mailing-lists and weblogs, ...
This declaration will soon be available in other languages
(Check the web site) ]

27th June 2005, Istanbul

In February 2003, weeks before an illegal war was initiated against Iraq,
millions of people protested in the streets of the world. That call went
unheeded. No international institution had the courage or conscience to
stand up to the threat of aggression of the US and UK governments. No one
could stop them. It is two years later now. Iraq has been invaded,
occupied, and devastated. The attack on Iraq is an attack on justice, on
liberty, on our safety, on our future, on us all. We, people of
conscience, decided to stand up. We formed the World Tribunal on Iraq
(WTI) to demand justice and a peaceful future.
The legitimacy of the World Tribunal on Iraq is located in the collective
conscience of humanity. This, the Istanbul session of the WTI, is the
culmination of a series of 20 hearings held in different cities of the
world focusing on the illegal invasion and occupation of Iraq.
The conclusions of these sessions and/or inquiries held in Barcelona,
Brussels, Copenhagen, Genoa, Hiroshima, Istanbul, Lisbon, London, Mumbai,
New York, Ostersund, Paris, Rome, Seoul, Stockholm, Tunis, various cities
in Japan and Germany are appended to this Declaration in a separate
We, the Jury of Conscience, from 10 different countries, met in Istanbul.
We heard 54 testimonies from a Panel of Advocates and Witnesses who came
from across the world, including from Iraq, the United States and the
United Kingdom.
The World Tribunal on Iraq met in Istanbul from 24-26 June 2005.
The principal objective of the WTI is to tell and disseminate the truth
about the Iraq War, underscoring the accountability of those responsible
and underlining the significance of justice for the Iraqi people.

I. Overview of Findings

1.The invasion and occupation of Iraq was and is illegal. The reasons
given by the US and UK governments for the invasion and occupation of
Iraq in March 2003 have proven to be false. Much evidence supports the
conclusion that a major motive for the war was to control and dominate
the Middle East and its vast reserves of oil as a part of the US drive
for global hegemony.
2.Blatant falsehoods about the presence of weapons of mass destruction
in Iraq and a link between Al Qaeda terrorism and the Saddam Hussein
regime were manufactured in order to create public support for a
"preemptive" assault upon a sovereign independent nation.
3.Iraq has been under siege for years. The imposition of severe inhumane
economic sanctions on 6 August 1990, the establishment of no-fly zones
in the Northern and Southern parts of Iraq, and the concomitant
bombing of the country were all aimed at degrading and weakening
Iraq's human and material resources and capacities in order to
facilitate its subsequent invasion and occupation. In this enterprise
the US and British leaderships had the benefit of a complicit UN
Security Council.
4.In pursuit of their agenda of empire, the Bush and Blair governments
blatantly ignored the massive opposition to the war expressed by
millions of people around the world. They embarked upon one of the most
unjust, immoral, and cowardly wars in history.
5.Established international political-legal mechanisms have failed to
prevent this attack and to hold the perpetrators accountable.
The impunity that the US government and its allies enjoy has created a
serious international crisis that questions the import and significance
of international law, of human rights covenants and of the ability of
international institutions including the United Nations to address the
crisis with any degree of authority or dignity.
6.The US/UK occupation of Iraq of the last 27 months has led to the
destruction and devastation of the Iraqi state and society. Law and
order have broken down, resulting in a pervasive lack of human security.
The physical infrastructure is in shambles; the health care delivery
system is in poor condition; the education system has virtually ceased
to function; there is massive environmental and ecological devastation;
and the cultural and archaeological heritage of the Iraqi people has
been desecrated.
7.The occupation has intentionally exacerbated ethnic, sectarian and
religious divisions in Iraqi society, with the aim of undermining
Iraq's identity and integrity as a nation. This is in keeping with the
familiar imperial policy of divide and rule. Moreover, it has
facilitated rising levels of violence against women, increased gender
oppression and reinforced patriarchy.
8.The imposition of the UN sanctions in 1990 caused untold suffering and
thousands of deaths. The situation has worsened after the occupation.
At least 100,000 civilians have been killed; 60,000 are being held in
US custody in inhumane conditions, without charges; thousands have
disappeared; and torture has become routine.
9.The illegal privatization, deregulation, and liberalization of the
Iraqi economy by the occupation regime has coerced the country into
becoming a client economy that is controlled by the IMF and the World
Bank, both of which are integral to the Washington Consensus.
The occupying forces have also acquired control over Iraq's oil
10.Any law or institution created under the aegis of occupation is devoid
of both legal and moral authority. The recently concluded election,
the Constituent Assembly, the current government, and the drafting
committee for the Constitution are therefore all illegitimate.
11.There is widespread opposition to the occupation. Political, social,
and civil resistance through peaceful means is subjected to repression
by the occupying forces. It is the occupation and its brutality that
has provoked a strong armed resistance and certain acts of desperation.
By the principles embodied in the UN Charter and in international law,
the popular national resistance to the occupation is legitimate and
justified. It deserves the support of people everywhere who care for
justice and freedom.

II. Charges

On the basis of the preceding findings and recalling the Charter of the
United Nations and other legal documents indicated in the appendix, the
jury has established the following charges.

A. Against the Governments of the US and the UK

1.Planning, preparing, and waging the supreme crime of a war of
aggression in contravention of the United Nations Charter and the
Nuremberg Principles. Evidence for this can be found in the leaked
Downing Street Memo of 23rd July, 2002, in which it was revealed:
"Military action was now seen as inevitable. Bush wanted to remove
Saddam through military action, justified by the conjunction of
terrorism and WMD. But the intelligence and facts were being fixed
around the policy." Intelligence was manufactured to willfully
deceive the people of the US, the UK, and their elected
2.Targeting the civilian population of Iraq and civilian
infrastructure by intentionally directing attacks upon civilians and
hospitals, medical centers, residential neighborhoods, electricity
stations, and water purification facilities. The complete
destruction of the city of Falluja in itself constitutes a glaring
example of such crimes.
3.Using disproportionate force and weapon systems with indiscriminate
effects, such as cluster munitions, incendiary bombs, depleted
uranium (DU), and chemical weapons. Detailed evidence was presented
to the Tribunal by expert witnesses that leukemia had risen sharply
in children under the age of five residing in those areas that had
been targeted by DU weapons.
4.Using DU munitions in spite of all the warnings presented by
scientists and war veterans on their devastating long-term effects
on human beings and the environment. The US Administration, claiming
lack of scientifically established proof of the harmful effects of
DU, decided to risk the lives of millions for several generations
rather than discontinue its use on account of the potential risks.
This alone displays the Administration's wanton disregard for human
life. The Tribunal heard testimony concerning the current
obstruction by the US Administration of the efforts of Iraqi
universities to collect data and conduct research on the issue.
5.Failing to safeguard the lives of civilians during military
activities and during the occupation period thereafter.
This is evidenced, for example, by "shock and awe" bombing techniques
and the conduct of occupying forces at checkpoints.
6.Actively creating conditions under which the status of Iraqi women
has seriously been degraded, contrary to the repeated claims of the
leaders of the coalition forces. Women's freedom of movement has
severely been limited, restricting their access to the public
sphere, to education, livelihood, political and social engagement.
Testimony was provided that sexual violence and sex trafficking have
increased since the occupation of Iraq began.
7.Using deadly violence against peaceful protestors, including the
April 2003 killing of more than a dozen peaceful protestors in
8.Imposing punishments without charge or trial, including collective
punishment, on the people of Iraq. Repeated testimonies pointed to
"snatch and grab" operations, disappearances and assassinations.
9.Subjecting Iraqi soldiers and civilians to torture and cruel,
inhuman, or degrading treatment. Degrading treatment includes
subjecting Iraqi soldiers and civilians to acts of racial, ethnic,
religious, and gender discrimination, as well as denying Iraqi
soldiers Prisoner of War status as required by the Geneva
Conventions. Abundant testimony was provided of unlawful arrests and
detentions, without due process of law. Well known and egregious
examples of torture and cruel and inhuman treatment occurred in Abu
Ghraib prison as well as in Mosul, Camp Bucca, and Basra.
The employment of mercenaries and private contractors to carry out
torture has served to undermine accountability.
10.Re-writing the laws of a country that has been illegally invaded
and occupied, in violation of international covenants on the
responsibilities of occupying powers, in order to amass illegal
profits (through such measures as Order 39, signed by L. Paul
Bremer III for the Coalition Provisional Authority, which allows
foreign investors to buy and takeover Iraq's state-owned
enterprises and to repatriate 100 percent of their profits and
assets at any point) and to control Iraq's oil. Evidence was
presented of a number of corporations that had profited from such
11.Willfully devastating the environment, contaminating it by depleted
uranium (DU) weapons, combined with the plumes from burning oil
wells, as well as huge oil spills, and destroying agricultural
lands. Deliberately disrupting the water and waste removal systems,
in a manner verging on biological-chemical warfare. Failing to
prevent the looting and dispersal of radioactive material from
nuclear sites. Extensive documentation is available on air and
water pollution, land degradation, and radioactive pollution.
12.Failing to protect humanity's rich archaeological and cultural
heritage in Iraq by allowing the looting of museums and established
historical sites and positioning military bases in culturally and
archaeologically sensitive locations. This took place despite prior
warnings from UNESCO and Iraqi museum officials.
13.Obstructing the right to information, including the censoring of
Iraqi media, such as newspapers (e.g., al-Hawza, al-Mashriq, and
al-Mustaqila) and radio stations (Baghdad Radio), the shutting down
of the Baghdad offices of Al Jazeera Television, targeting
international journalists, imprisoning and killing academics,
intellectuals and scientists.
14.Redefining torture in violation of international law, to allow use
of torture and illegal detentions, including holding more than 500
people at Guantanamo Bay without charging them or allowing them any
access to legal protection, and using "extraordinary renditions" to
send people to be tortured in other countries known to commit human
rights abuses and torture prisoners.
15.Committing a crime against peace by violating the will of the
global anti-war movement. In an unprecedented display of public
conscience millions of people across the world stood in opposition
to the imminent attack on Iraq. The attack rendered them
effectively voiceless. This amounts to a declaration by the US
government and its allies to millions of people that their voices
can be ignored, suppressed and silenced with complete impunity.
16.Engaging in policies to wage permanent war on sovereign nations.
Syria and Iran have already been declared as potential targets.
In declaring a "global war on terror," the US government has given
itself the exclusive right to use aggressive military force against
any target of its choosing. Ethnic and religious hostilities are
being fueled in different parts of the world. The US occupation of
Iraq has further emboldened the Israeli occupation in Palestine and
increased the repression of the Palestinian people. The focus on
state security and the escalation of militarization has caused a
serious deterioration of human security and civil rights across the

B. Against the Security Council of the United Nations

1.Failing to protect the Iraqi people against the crime of aggression.
2.Imposing harsh economic sanctions on Iraq, despite knowledge that
sanctions were directly contributing to the massive loss of civilian
lives and harming innocent civilians.
3.Allowing the United States and United Kingdom to carry out illegal
bombings in the no-fly zones, using false pretenses of enforcing UN
resolutions, and at no point allowing discussion in the Security
Council of this violation, and thereby being complicit and
responsible for loss of civilian life and destruction of Iraqi
4.Allowing the United States to dominate the United Nations and hold
itself above any accountability by other member nations.
5.Failure to stop war crimes and crimes against humanity by the
United States and its coalition partners in Iraq.
6.Failure to hold the United States and its coalition partners
accountable for violations of international law during the invasion
and occupation, giving official sanction to the occupation and
therefore, both by acts of commission and acts of omission becoming
a collaborator in an illegal occupation.

C. Against the Governments of the Coalition of the Willing

Collaborating in the invasion and occupation of Iraq, thus sharing
responsibility in the crimes committed.

D. Against the Governments of Other Countries

Allowing the use of military bases and air space, and providing other
logistical support, for the invasion and occupation, and hence being
complicit in the crimes committed.

E. Against the Private Corporations which have won contracts for the
reconstruction of Iraq and which have sued for and received
"reparation awards" from the illegal occupation regime

Profiting from the war with complicity in the crimes described above,
of invasion and occupation.

F. Against the Major Corporate Media

1.Disseminating the deliberate falsehoods spread by the governments of
the US and the UK and failing to adequately investigate this
misinformation, even in the face of abundant evidence to the contrary.
Among the corporate media houses that bear special responsibility for
promoting the lies about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, we name
the New York Times, in particular their reporter Judith Miller, whose
main source was on the payroll of the CIA. We also name Fox News,
CNN, NBC, CBS, ABC, the BBC and ITN. This list also includes but is
not limited to, The Express, The Sun, The Observer and Washington
2.Failing to report the atrocities being committed against Iraqi
people by the occupying forces, neglecting the duty to give privilege
and dignity to voices of suffering and marginalizing the global
voices for peace and justice.
3.Failing to report fairly on the ongoing occupation; silencing and
discrediting dissenting voices and failing to adequately report on
the full national costs and consequences of the invasion and
occupation of Iraq; disseminating the propaganda of the occupation
regime that seeks to justify the continuation of its presence in Iraq
on false grounds.
4.Inciting an ideological climate of fear, racism, xenophobia and
Islamophobia, which is then used to justify and legitimize violence
perpetrated by the armies of the occupying regime.
5.Disseminating an ideology that glorifies masculinity and combat,
while normalizing war as a policy choice.
6.Complicity in the waging of an aggressive war and perpetuating a
regime of occupation that is widely regarded as guilty of war crimes
and crimes against humanity.
7.Enabling, through the validation and dissemination of disinformation,
the fraudulent misappropriation of human and financial resources for
an illegal war waged on false pretexts.
8.Promoting corporate-military perspectives on "security" which are
counter-productive to the fundamental concerns and priorities of the
global population and have seriously endangered civilian populations.

III. Recommendations

Recognizing the right of the Iraqi people to resist the illegal occupation
of their country and to develop independent institutions, and affirming
that the right to resist the occupation is the right to wage a struggle
for self-determination, freedom, and independence as derived from the
Charter of the United Nations, we the Jury of Conscience declare our
solidarity with the people of Iraq.

We recommend:

1.The immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the Coalition forces from
2.That Coalition governments make war reparations and pay compensation to
Iraq for the humanitarian, economic, ecological, and cultural
devastation they have caused by their illegal invasion and occupation.
3.That all laws, contracts, treaties, and institutions established under
occupation, which the Iraqi people deem inimical to their interests, be
considered null and void.
4.That the Guantanamo Bay prison and all other offshore US military
prisons be closed immediately, that the names of the prisoners be
disclosed, that they receive POW status, and receive due process.
5.That there be an exhaustive investigation of those responsible for the
crime of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity in Iraq,
beginning with George W. Bush, President of the United States of
America, Tony Blair, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, those in key
decision-making positions in these countries and in the Coalition of
the Willing, those in the military chain-of-command who master-minded
the strategy for and carried out this criminal war, starting from the
very top and going down; as well as personalities in Iraq who helped
prepare this illegal invasion and supported the occupiers.

We list some of the most obvious names to be included in such

- prime ministers of the Coalition of the Willing, such as Junichiro
Koizumi of Japan, Jose Maria Aznar of Spain, Silvio Berlusconi of
Italy, Jose Manuel Durao Barroso and Santana Lopes of Portugal, Roh
Moo Hyun of South Korea, Anders Fogh Rasmussen of Denmark;
- public officials such as Dick Cheney, Donald H. Rumsfeld, Paul
Wolfowitz, Colin L. Powell, Condoleezza Rice, Richard Perle, Douglas
Feith, Alberto Gonzales, L. Paul Bremer from the US, and Jack Straw,
Geoffrey Hoon, John Reid, Adam Ingram from the UK;
- military commanders beginning with: Gen. Richard Myers, Gen. Tommy
Franks, Gen. John P. Abizaid, Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez, Gen. Thomas
Metz, Gen. John R. Vines, Gen. George Casey from the US; Gen. Mike
Jackson, Gen. John Kiszely, Air Marshal Brian Burridge, Gen. Peter
Wall, Rear Admiral David Snelson, Gen. Robin Brims, Air Vice-Marshal
Glenn Torpy from the UK; and chiefs of staff and commanding officers
of all coalition countries with troops in Iraq.
- Iraqi collaborators such as Ahmed Chalabi, Iyad Allawi, Abdul Aziz
Al Hakim, Gen. Abdul Qader Mohammed Jassem Mohan, among others.

6.That a process of accountability is initiated to hold those morally and
personally responsible for their participation in this illegal war,
such as journalists who deliberately lied, corporate media outlets that
promoted racial, ethnic and religious hatred, and CEOs of multinational
corporations that profited from this war;
7.That people throughout the world launch nonviolent actions against US
and UK corporations that directly profit from this war. Examples of
such corporations include Halliburton, Bechtel, The Carlyle Group, CACI
Inc., Titan Corporation, Kellog, Brown and Root (subsidiary of
Halliburton), DynCorp, Boeing, ExxonMobil, Texaco, British Petroleum.
The following companies have sued Iraq and received "reparation awards":
Toys R Us, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Shell, Nestle, Pepsi, Phillip Morris,
Sheraton, Mobil. Such actions may take the form of direct actions such
as shutting down their offices, consumer boycotts, and pressure on
shareholders to divest.
8.That young people and soldiers act on conscientious objection and refuse
to enlist and participate in an illegal war. Also, that countries
provide conscientious objectors with political asylum.
9.That the international campaign for dismantling all US military bases
abroad be reinforced.
10.That people around the world resist and reject any effort by any of
their governments to provide material, logistical, or moral support to
the occupation of Iraq.

We, the Jury of Conscience, hope that the scope and specificity of these
recommendations will lay the groundwork for a world in which international
institutions will be shaped and reshaped by the will of people and not by
fear and self-interest, where journalists and intellectuals will not
remain mute, where the will of the people of the world will be central,
and human security will prevail over state security and corporate profits.

Arundhati Roy, India, Spokesperson of the Jury of Conscience
Ahmet Ozturk, Turkey
Ayse Erzan, Turkey
Chandra Muzaffar, Malaysia
David Krieger, USA
Eve Ensler, USA
Francois Houtart, Belgium
Jae-Bok Kim, South Korea
Mehmet Tarhan, Turkey
Miguel Angel De Los Santos Cruz, Mexico
Murat Belge, Turkey
Rela Mazali, Israel
Salaam Al Jobourie, Iraq
Taty Almeida, Argentina

International Law Appendix

Explanatory Note

This international law appendix is intended to back up the Jury Statement
that rests its assessments primarily on a moral and political appraisal of
the Iraq War. The Statement relies upon the extensive testimony given in
written and oral form by international law experts who have a world-class
scholarly reputation during the Istanbul Culminating Session of the World
Tribunal on Iraq (WTI). It also reflects the testimony and submissions on
related issues of war crimes and the failure of the United Nations to
protect Iraq against aggression.

The Jury of Conscience was not a body composed of jurists or international
law experts. It did not hear arguments supporting the legality of the
invasion of Iraq as would have been made before a judicial body under the
authority of either the state or an international institution acting on
behalf of the international community. The World Tribunal on Iraq
throughout all of its session proceeded from a sense of moral and
political outrage of concerned citizens from all over the world, with
respect to the war. The Tribunal was not interested in a debate solely as
to legality. The legal issues were relevant to the extent that they added
weight to the moral and political purpose of the Tribunal, which was to
expose the Iraq War as the crime it is, appealing to and drawing upon the
deep bonds that link us all in our humanity. Therefore the Tribunal sought
testimony and evidence to call into question the mantle of respectability
thrown over the Iraq War by the aggressors, and the false impression
disseminated by mainstream media, that the Iraq War was in any sense
justified by political circumstances, moral considerations, or legal

The WTI is a worldwide process dedicated to reclaiming justice on behalf
of the peoples of the world. It aims to record the severe wrongs, crimes,
and violations that were committed in the process leading up to the
aggression against Iraq, during the war, and throughout the ensuing
occupation, continuing with unabated fury to this day. The role of
international law is understood in light of these WTI goals.

The concerns of the WTI range much further than the demand for the
implementation of international law, especially as much of this law
currently serves the interests of wealth and power. Nevertheless,
international law with respect to the use of force and recourse to war is
important in relation to the work of the WTI. International law is useful
for the WTI for the following reasons:

- International law grounds the political and moral demand for the
criminal indictment and prosecution of those responsible for the Iraq
War, and it clarifies the extent of criminal accountability as
extending to corporate and media participation;
- International law rejects the dangerous imperialist claims of the United
States and the United Kingdom to be exempt from international legal

In addition, the WTI makes use of international law to fulfill its

- The WTI connects a call for global justice with the demand for the
implementation of international law, but also for a rethinking of the
premises and operations of international law so that it might be of
greater relevance to the achievement of human security in the future;
- The WTI demands an interrogation as to why international institutions,
particularly the United Nations, proved powerless against US
unilateralism and aggression;
- The WTI insists that United Nations exercise its constitutional
responsibility to protect its Members from aggression and illegal
- The WTI possesses the authority, as representing civil society, to
declare and seek enforcement of international legal obligations when
states and the United Nations fail to uphold international law in
matters of war and peace.

It is important to distinguish:

- violations of international law, including the UN Charter, by a state;
- crimes associated with these violation committed by political and
military leaders, government officials, corporations and their officers,
soldiers and private contractors, journalists and media personnel.

Legal Analysis

- International law consists of (1) international treaties, including
the UN Charter [see list of documents]; (2) international customary
law [especially in relation to the conduct of states in war]; (3)
international criminal law [a sub-category of (1) resting on treaties
and agreements among states, based on the framework of the Nuremberg
Judgment in 1945, unanimously affirmed by the UN General Assembly's
adoption of the Nuremberg Principles in 1946, Res. 95(I)].
- In the War on Iraq the three principles of customary international law
have been violated: (1) Principle of Proportionality: force can only be
used to attain permissible legal objectives, and then only to the
extent required by 'military necessity'; (2) Principle of
Discrimination: force and weaponry can only be used if confined to
military targets; indiscriminate weapons and tactics are prohibited;
(3) Principle of Humanity: force must never be used to cause
unnecessary suffering and maximum care must be taken to protect
civilian society, including its cultural heritage.
- The War on Iraq violates the Nuremberg Principles that set forth the
following essential guidelines (as formulated by the International Law
Commission of the UN in 1950 in response to request from General

Principle I

Any person who commits an act which constitutes a crime under
international law is responsible therefore and liable to punishment.

Principle II

The fact that internal law does not impose a penalty for an act, which
constitutes a crime under international law, does not relieve the person
who committed the act from responsibility under international law.

Principle III

The fact that a person who committed an act which constitutes a crime
under international law acted as Head of State or responsible Government
official does not relieve him from responsibility under international law.

Principle IV

The fact that a person acted pursuant to order of his Government or of a
superior does not relieve him from responsibility under international law,
provided a moral choice was in fact possible to him.

Principle V

Any person charged with a crime under international law has the right to
a fair trial on the facts and law.

Principle VI

The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under;
international law:

a) Crimes against peace:
i. Planning, preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression
or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or
ii. Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment
of any of the acts mentioned under (i).
b) War crimes:
Violations of the laws or customs of war which include, but are not
limited to, murder, ill treatment or deportation to slave-labor or for
any other purpose of civilian population of or in occupied territory,
murder or ill treatment of prisoners of war, of persons on the seas,
killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton
destruction of cities, towns, or villages, or devastation not
justified by military necessity.
c) Crimes against humanity:
Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman acts
done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political,
racial or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such
persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any
crime against peace or any war crime.

Principle VII

Complicity in the commission of a crime against peace, a war crime, or a
crime against humanity as set forth in Principles VI is a crime under
international law.

Violations and Crimes:

I. The invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003, together with the continuing
occupation of Iraq, constitutes a violation of the core obligation of
the United Nations Charter:

- resolving international conflicts by recourse to force or the threat
of force is unconditionally prohibited by Article 2(4) of the Charter;
- the only exception to this probation is the right of states to act in
self-defense against a prior armed attack as allowed by Article 51,
but with the requirement that defending state report its claim to the
Security Council;
- the claims of the US/UK Governments based on doctrines of 'preemption'
or 'preventive war' have no standing in international law, and
reliance on such specious arguments was in any event unsupported by
facts; even if weapons of mass destruction had existed in Iraq it
would not provide a legal justification for the invasion; nor would
the claim that 'regime change' would liberate the Iraqi people from
dictatorial rule violative of human rights;
- with respect to Iraq there existed no basis for claiming self-defense
or acting on the basis of a Security Council authorization; the
invasion of Iraq and the subsequent occupation of the country
constitutes a continuing aggression against a sovereign state and
member of the UN in violation of international law;
- the cumulative effect of these violations is to create a strong
factual and legal foundation for the indictment, prosecution, and
punishment of the individuals responsible for planning, initiating,
and waging a crime of aggression against Iraq.

II. Iraq War by the invading military forces, principally those of the
United States and United Kingdom, and subsequent occupation, violated
the law of war such as the Geneva Conventions on the Humanitarian Laws
of War (1949), Additional Protocols to Geneva Conventions (1977) and
Hague Conventions on the Laws of War (1899, 1907) in numerous respects,
including the following:

- use of cluster bombs, napalm, depleted uranium;
- bombing of civilian targets and areas (e.g. markets, restaurants,
media facilities, religious and cultural sites);
- intense and indiscriminate military operations against many cities
and towns causing massive civilian casualties (e.g. Najaf, Falluja);
- repeated and systematic use of torture and degrading treatment of
Iraqi civilian and military personnel detained in prison facilities
or covertly transferred to foreign countries known for torture and
severe prison conditions;
- overall failure to protect the civilian population and their
property, cultural heritage (shootings at check points; house raids;
lootings of museums and other cultural sites; refusal to assess
extent of civilian death and damage) [see especially common Article 3
of the Geneva Conventions imposing duty to take special measures to
protect civilian population to the extent possible) (Also Geneva
Convention IV specifies the obligations of the occupying power in
Articles 47-78);
- the cumulative effect of this pattern of flagrant and extensive
violations of the laws of war is to create the foundation for the
indictment, prosecution, and punishment of those individuals
responsible, as policy makers, leaders, and as implementers at
various levels of command;
- Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions reads: "The High Contracting
Parties, including US/UK, undertake to respect and ensure respect
for the present Convention in all circumstances." The American legal
specialists in Office of the Legal Counsel in the White House, in
the Justice Department, and Department of Defense who advised on the
'legality' of torture and other behavior that violates the law of
war are priority targets for indictment and prosecution.

III. The occupation of Iraq has fragrantly violated The Right of
Self-Determination of the People of Iraq:

- Article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and
Cultural Rights and of the International Covenant on Political and
Civil Rights (1966): "(1) All peoples have the right of
self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine
their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and
cultural development";
- It is evident that the occupation, by its decrees, practices,
imposition of an interim government, managed elections, and
administered constitution-making process has violated the right of
self-determination of the Iraqi people, a fundamental element of
international human rights law.

IV. The occupation of Iraq has included massive abuses of the Iraqi
civilian population, including the widespread and pervasive reliance
on torture, the practice of which is unconditionally prohibited by
international law:

- Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "No one
shall be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
or punishment" (repeated in Article 7 of International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights (1966), including Article 4(2) that affirms
there are no exceptions, even in conditions of war or emergency) and
further confirmed by the widely ratified treaty�- Convention
Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment (1984).

V. The United Nations has failed to uphold its obligations to protect
sovereign states, especially its members, from violations of their
legal rights to political independence and territorial integrity,
passively allowing Iraq to be threatened and attacked for twelve years
prior to the invasion of 2003:

- the UNSC maintained sanctions on Iraq that had a demonstrated
genocidal effect on the civilian population during the period
- the UNSC refrained from censuring and preventing repeated air strikes
within Iraq territory during the period 1991-2003;
- the UNSC refrained from censuring and preventing overt calls for the
subversion and replacement of the Iraqi government, as well as the
financing and training of exiles dedicated to armed struggle;
- the UNSC failed to condemn or act to prevent aggressive threats or
the actual initiation and conduct of an aggressive war against Iraq
in 2003, and has to a limited extent cooperated in the illegal
occupation of Iraq since the invasion .


1.The Jury Statement is consistent with an objective understanding of
international law, including the United Nations Charter.
2.Members of the United Nations and governments of sovereign states have
legal obligations to uphold the Charter and act to ensure respect for
the laws of war.
3.All three categories of Nuremberg Crimes are associated with the
invasion and occupation of Iraq.
4.The International Criminal Court should indict, prosecute, and punish
the perpetrators and collaborators for this aggression against Iraq and
the related international crimes arising from the subsequent occupation
of the country.
5.The ICC should be supplemented by a specially constituted international
tribunal with authority to indict, prosecute, and punish for crimes
committed before 2002 when the ICC was established and to the extent
that crimes associated with states not Parties to the ICC are not
6.The UNGA should be encouraged to implement international law with
respect to the Iraq War and occupation.
7.National courts relying on universal jurisdiction should be urged to
investigate and prosecute individuals associated with Nuremberg Crimes
in Iraq.
8.Organs of civil society, including the WTI, should act to ensure that
the recommendations and conclusions of the Jury Statement are promptly
and fairly implemented.

Appendix: List of Legal Documents

- Hague Convention IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land
- Protocol for the Prohibition of the use in War of Asphyxiating,
Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods (1925)
- General Treaty ('Pact of Paris') for the Renunciation of War as an
Instrument of National Policy (1928)
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
- Geneva Conventions (I-IV) on International Humanitarian Law (1949)
- Nuremberg Principles Recognized in the Charter of the Tribunal and in
the Nuremberg Judgment (1950)
- European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950)
- Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
- Convention on the Political Rights of Women (1953)
- Code of Conduct for the Armed Forces of the United States of America
- International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial
Discrimination (1965)
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
- American Convention on Human Rights (1969)
- Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and
Stockpiling of Biological Weapons and Toxin Weapons (1972)
- Universal (or Algiers) Declaration of the Rights of Peoples (1976)
- Principles of Co-Operation in the Detection, Arrest, Extradition and
Punishment of Persons Guilty of War Crimes or Crimes Against Humanity
- Protocol Additional (I-II) to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 (1977)
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women (1979)
- African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1981)
- Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment (1984)
- International Convention Against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and
Training of Mercenaries (1989)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
- Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production,
Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (1992)
- Declaration for the Protection of War Victims (1993)
- Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998)

World Tribunal on Iraq -



Post a Comment

<< Home